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Daniel Chapter 11
Based on the American Standard Version of 1901
by Charles Dailey

(Black underlined words match words in the Bible text.)
The text here is an extension of the last verse of chapter 20. Gabriel is speaking.
1) And as for me, in the first year of Darius the Mede, I stood up to confirm and strengthen him. When the handwriting went on the wall several years back, Gabriel was present to back Michael who was closely involved.
2) And now will I show thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and when he is waxed strong through his riches, he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece. The future begins to unfold. There will be four Persian kings and the fourth one will stir up Greece.
- If there were four literal kings, Barnes suggests they were Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius Hystaspis and Xerxes. This last king was wealthy, the Bill Gates of his time. Xerxes sent his engineers to Greek territory to build a canal that would allow his troops to conqueror the land with less risk. He was a terrible threat to the Greeks. See the map in chapter 7, page 4, where the map-maker has labeled the attacker of Greece as Darius. The attack actually came from his son, Xerxes.
3) And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. The king here is Alexander the Great. His kingdom was soon broken and divided four ways, but he did not have sons old enough to rule, so the kingdom was not left to his posterity. Later, his sons were murdered. The four-way division of the Greek Empire is identical to the four heads in 7:6; four horns in 8:5-8, and four kingdoms in 8:22.
- There will be further subdivisions among the original four parts of the Empire. Egypt and Syrian for example.
4) And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others besides these.
5) And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion. The Greek general that took charge of Egypt was Ptolemy Soter, sometimes designated at Ptolemy I. (A title, not a personal name.) His dynasty was the king of the south.
- Some of the Syrian portion of his kingdom was turned over to Seleucus I. His dynasty was the king of the north. His likeness has been preserved on silver coins. This one is for sale at $2,500.
- Over time, the Seleucud kings in Syria grew stronger militarily than the Ptolemies in Egypt.
6) And at the end of years they shall join themselves together; and the daughter of the king of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the strength of her arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm; but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in those times. The two kings were peaceable at first. To seal peace, a royal daughter from the south (Bernice) married a king of the north. When the sitting king died, contenders killed Bernice and her son.
- Her staff was also killed - "they that brought her."
7) But out of a shoot from her roots shall one stand up in his place, who shall come unto the army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail. The brother of Bernice, Ptolemais Evergetes, headed north with an army to avenge his sister's murder. The peace was past and wars had begun.
- The king of the north at this moment was Antiochus Calinicus.
8) And also their gods, with their molten images, and with their goodly vessels of silver and of gold, shall he carry captive into Egypt; and he shall refrain some years from the king of the north. There was a respite from war for a few years.
- The hand-made deities of the north land were moved to Egypt. This showed the superiority over the opposing deities.
- Ptolemy took with him, on his return, forty thousand talents of silver, a vast number of precious vessels of gold, and images to the number of two thousand four hundred, among which were many of the Egyptian idols, which Cambyses, on his conquering Egypt, had carried into Persia.
9) And he shall come into the realm of the king of the south, but he shall return into his own land.
10) And his sons shall war, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces, which shall come on, and overflow, and pass through; and they shall return and war, even to his fortress. Seleucus and Antiochus the Great, the sons of Calinicus, will make war against Ptolemais Philopater, the son of Philadelphus.
- Seleucus died or was slain, leaving only Antiochus.
- Philopater did not like losing strongholds that he had gained in Syria. He returned from Egypt to defend his claims.
11) And the king of the south shall be moved with anger, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north; and he shall set forth a great multitude, and the multitude shall be given into his hand. The king of the south would at first have very great success. Philopater, moved with indignation at the indignities done by Antiochus the Great, will fight with him, and shall bring a vast army into the field of 70,000 footmen, and 5000 horses, and seventy-three elephants. And the other multitude (the army of Antiochus, consisting of 62,000 foot soldiers, and 6,000 horses, and 102 elephants) would be given into his hand. Philopater, having gained this victory, grew very insolent; his heart was lifted up; then he went into the temple of God at Jerusalem, and entered the most holy place, for which God has a controversy with him, so that, though he shall cast down many myriads, yet he shall not be strengthened by it, so as to secure his interest.
12) And the multitude shall be lifted up, and his heart shall be exalted; and he shall cast down tens of thousands, but he shall not prevail.
13) And the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former; and he shall come on at the end of the times, even of years, with a great army and with much substance.
14) And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the children of the violent among thy people shall lift themselves up to establish the vision; but they shall fall. A Greek king, Philip of Macedon (not the father of the long-deceased Alexander the Great) joined Antiochus the Great to battle the king of Egypt.
- Even some of Daniel's people joined in this effort. The angel warned that their efforts were doomed.
15) So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mound, and take a well-fortified city: and the forces of the south shall not stand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to stand. The armies of the north prevailed in battle.
- Antiochus the Great is to conqueror the northern strongholds held by Ptolemy.
16) But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him; and he shall stand in the glorious land, and in his hand shall be destruction. Antiochus the Great will not only defeat Egypt, but shall stand in the glorious land - Israel. He will destroy his way to success.
17) And he shall set his face to come with the strength of his whole kingdom, and with him equitable conditions; and he shall perform them: and he shall give him the daughter of women, to corrupt her; but she shall not stand, neither be for him. Antiochus had a beautiful daughter named Cleopatra (not the famous one who lived later). He offered her to the king of Egypt, Ptolemy Ephiphanes, as a wife, hoping that she would betray her husband - but she was loyal to him.
18) After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; yea, moreover, he shall cause his reproach to turn upon him. Antiochus the Great turned to the west, conquering or making pacts with the rulers of islands or even nations surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
- Lucius Scipio put him to flight, and caused his shame to turn on his own head.
19) Then he shall turn his face toward the fortresses of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and shall not be found. Under the pretense of poverty he robbed the temple of Jupiter Dodomeus, and local men killed him.
20) Then shall stand up in his place one that shall cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom; but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle. Next in line was Seleucus Philopater, elder son of Antiochus the Great. He oppressed his own subjects, and exacted an abundance of money from them; and, when he was told he would thereby lose his friends, he said he knew no better friend he had than money. He likewise attempted to rob the temple at Jerusalem, which this seems to refer to.
- But within a few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle, but poisoned by Heliodorus, one of his own servants.
21) And in his place shall stand up a contemptible person, to whom they had not given the honor of the kingdom: but he shall come in time of security, and shall obtain the kingdom by flatteries. The next king was Philopater's brother Antiochus Epiphanes. He defrauded his brother's son of the rulership and simply put himself in office. Many chose to mispronounce his name: Epimanes - Mad man.
22) And the overwhelming forces shall be overwhelmed from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant. Neighboring nations came to the help of the nephew Ptolemais, but they could not restore him. - The prince of the covenant may have been the Jewish High Priest Onias III.
23) And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully; for he shall come up, and shall become strong, with a small people. The Message reads: "After negotiating a cease-fire, he'll betray its terms. With a few henchmen, he'll take total control."
24) In time of security shall he come even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them prey, and spoil, and substance: yea, he shall devise his devices against the strongholds, even for a time. "Arbitrarily and impulsively, he'll invade the richest provinces. He'll surpass all his ancestors, near and distant, in his rape of the country, grabbing and looting, living with his cronies in corrupt and lavish luxury. He will make plans against the fortress cities, but they'll turn out to be shortsighted."
25) And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall war in battle with an exceeding great and mighty army; but he shall not stand; for they shall devise devices against him. Antiochus attacked Philometor in Egypt where he found an equally large army awaiting his attack. However, that army collapsed and Philometor was replaced by his brother Physcon (potbelly).
26) Yea, they that eat of his dainties shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow; and many shall fall down slain. Philometor had been betrayed by members of his staff.
27) And as for both these kings, their hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table: but it shall not prosper; for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. The Message: "The two kings, each with evil designs on the other, will sit at the conference table and trade lies. Nothing will come of the treaty, which is nothing but a tissue of lies anyway. But that's not the end of it. There's more to this story."
28) Then shall he return into his land with great substance; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do his pleasure, and return to his own land. Heady with success and booty, Antiochus returned from Egypt and assailed Jerusalem, killing 40,000. He sold many Jews as slaves and plundered the Temple, stealing its treasures.
- For excellent detail on this event, see the notes on chapter 8
29) At the time appointed he shall return, and come into the south; but it shall not be in the latter time as it was in the former. Antiochus tried a repeat on Egypt but was surprised. A Roman (Kittim) fleet lay at anchor in the bay, and presently Antiochus was met by the Roman Popilius Laenas, who put into his hand a missive from the Roman Senate commanding him to leave the friends of the Roman people unmolested, and to be content with his own Kingdom. Having read it, Antiochus remarked that he would call his advisors and consult with them as to what was to be done. Whereupon Popilius drew a circle around him in the sand with his staff, and said -- "Before you step out of that circle give such an answer as I may report to the Senate." The King was cowed, and replied -- "If it so please the Senate, we will depart." He left. It was not like the former times.
30) For ships of Kittim shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and shall return, and have indignation against the holy covenant, and shall do his pleasure: he shall even return, and have regard unto them that forsake the holy covenant.
31) And forces shall stand on his part, and they shall profane the sanctuary, even the fortress, and shall take away the continual burnt-offering, and they shall set up the abomination that maketh desolate. Being angry at the defeat, he vented on the Jews at Jerusalem who kept the holy covenant. (Not all did.)
- Antiochus profaned the Temple Altar and soon the war to free the Jews from Syrian rule was launched.
- An altar to Jupiter was set up on the temple altar.
32) And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he pervert by flatteries; but the people that know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. Political cunning as well as military force were used to destroy the worship of faithful Israelites.
- Some Jewish leaders sided with Antiochus.
- Locate a case of being strong in the 2 Maccabees text that begins on page 10 below.
33) And they that are wise among the people shall instruct many; yet they shall fall by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil, many days. See details of the Maccabeean period below.
34) Now when they shall fall, they shall be helped with a little help; but many shall join themselves unto them with flatteries.
35) And some of them that are wise shall fall, to refine them, and to purify, and to make them white, even to the time of the end; because it is yet for the time appointed. The Message: "The testing will refine, cleanse, and purify those who keep their heads on straight and stay true, for there is still more to come."
- The story is not finished.
But there were some who "knew their God," that He was able to deliver, and so they were made "strong," and did "exploits." This refers to Mattathias, an aged Priest, and his sons, known as the Maccabees, who, from BC 166 to BC 47, fought to restore the national life of Israel. Mattathias, driven to desperation by the outrages of Antiochus, raised a revolt against him, and fled to the mountains with a number of followers, zealous for the faith of Israel. Two years later he died and was succeeded by his third son, Judas, known as "The Hammer," who by avoiding pitched battles, and by guerrilla warfare, defeated and routed every Syrian army sent against him, and in BC 165 retook Jerusalem, purified the Temple, and restored the daily sacrifice. He fell in battle in BC 160, and was succeeded by his younger brother Jonathan, a High Priest. During the leadership of Jonathan the Syrians were engaged in civil war, so Judea was left in peace, and Jonathan strengthened his position by making a treaty with the Romans and the Spartans. He was treacherously slain by a Syrian general in BC 143, and was succeeded by his bother Simon, the last remaining son of Mattathias. Simon and two of his sons were treacherously slain by his son-in-law in BC 135. His son John, known as John Hycanus, who escaped, succeeded him and had a long and prosperous reign. Others in the same line followed, with varying success, until the Maccabeans, falling into disfavor, were succeeded by the Idumaen, Antipater, in BC 47. After the murder of Antipater, BC 43, Marc Anthony visited Syria, and appointed two of Antipater's sons, Phasaelus and Herod, afterward known as "Herod the Great" (BC 37 to BC 4) to look after the Jews. Herod the Great was King when Christ was born in BC 4. Matthew 2:1-15. From this we see that the Maccabees bridged the greater part of the period from Antiochus Epiphanes to the Birth of Christ. - copied  
36) And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods; and he shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished; for that which is determined shall be done. Antiochus will do what he wants to. Some see the (or an) anti-Christ here, but that term was never connected to a king elsewhere in Scripture.
37) Neither shall he regard the gods of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall magnify himself above all. Men who hate deity do not regard women, either. Alternately, the desire of women could refer to a female goddess worshiped by women. See verse 45.
38) But in his place shall he honor the god of fortresses; and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. The god of fortresses has drawn large amounts of conjecture, but The Message translates it differently: "Marching under the banner of a strange god, he will attack the key fortresses. He will promote everyone who falls into line behind this god, putting them in positions of power and paying them off with grants of land." Several other translations agree with the general view.
- This view removes the mysterious deity. Some have believed this was prophetic and not yet fulfilled because of this deity.
39) And he shall deal with the strongest fortresses by the help of a foreign god: whosoever acknowledgeth him he will increase with glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for a price.
40) And at the time of the end shall the king of the south contend with him; and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass through. At the time of the end: These final verses are a summary of the previous details about Antiochus. There is no record of another Syrian campaign against Egypt.
- One point of view sees Antiochus as a precursor of an anti-Christ and these verses as prophetic. We reject this because Daniel was learning from Gabriel about Daniel's people and the glorious land.
41) He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown; but these shall be delivered out of his hand: Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. Previously we had details, now the broad summary of the ventures of Antiochus Epiphanes.
- Almost every country in the area will be overthrown.
42) He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries; and the land of Egypt shall not escape. Even the largest nations will feel his attacks.
43) But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt; and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps. This man worshiped money and war.
44) But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him; and he shall go forth with great fury to destroy and utterly to sweep away many. "Antiochus had his armies in the field in Judea attempting to put down the Maccabean revolt when he received alarming news from Parthia and Armenia. Insurrection was spreading in the east and north of his empire also and so Antiochus was obliged to set out upon expedition to Parthia and Armenia to quell this revolt." - Butler
45) And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the sea and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him. Antiochus had been baffled in an attempt to plunder in Elymais the temple of Nanaea (called Artemis in the west). He retired to Babylon, and moved from there to Tabae in Persia, where he became mad and died 164 B.C.
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2 Maccabees 5

While the author of this work takes to occasional flights of fancy, some of the content is useful to the student of history.

12: And he commanded his soldiers to cut down relentlessly every one they met and to slay those who went into the houses.
13: Then there was killing of young and old, destruction of boys, women, and children, and slaughter of virgins and infants.
14: Within the total of three days eighty thousand were destroyed, forty thousand in hand-to-hand fighting; and as many were sold into slavery as were slain.
15: Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.
16: He took the holy vessels with his polluted hands, and swept away with profane hands the votive offerings which other kings had made to enhance the glory and honor of the place.
17: Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who dwelt in the city, and that therefore he was disregarding the holy place.
18: But if it had not happened that they were involved in many sins, this man would have been scourged and turned back from his rash act as soon as he came forward, just as Heliodorus was, whom Seleucus the king sent to inspect the treasury.
19: But the Lord did not choose the nation for the sake of the holy place, but the place for the sake of the nation.
20: Therefore the place itself shared in the misfortunes that befell the nation and afterward participated in its benefits; and what was forsaken in the wrath of the Almighty was restored again in all its glory when the great Lord became reconciled.
21: So Antiochus carried off eighteen hundred talents from the temple, and hurried away to Antioch, thinking in his arrogance that he could sail on the land and walk on the sea, because his mind was elated.
22: And he left governors to afflict the people: at Jerusalem, Philip, by birth a Phrygian and in character more barbarous than the man who appointed him;
23: and at Gerizim, Andronicus; and besides these Menelaus, who lorded it over his fellow citizens worse than the others did. In his malice toward the Jewish citizens,
24: Antiochus sent Apollonius, the captain of the Mysians, with an army of twenty-two thousand, and commanded him to slay all the grown men and to sell the women and boys as slaves.
25: When this man arrived in Jerusalem, he pretended to be peaceably disposed and waited until the holy sabbath day; then, finding the Jews not at work, he ordered his men to parade under arms.
26: He put to the sword all those who came out to see them, then rushed into the city with his armed men and killed great numbers of people.
27: But Judas Maccabeus, with about nine others, got away to the wilderness, and kept himself and his companions alive in the mountains as wild animals do; they continued to live on what grew wild, so that they might not share in the defilement.

Chapter 6

1: Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,
2: and also to pollute the temple in Jerusalem and call it the temple of Olympian Zeus, and to call the one in Gerizim the temple of Zeus the Friend of Strangers, as did the people who dwelt in that place.
3: Harsh and utterly grievous was the onslaught of evil.
4: For the temple was filled with debauchery and reveling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots and had intercourse with women within the sacred precincts, and besides brought in things for sacrifice that were unfit.
5: The altar was covered with abominable offerings which were forbidden by the laws.
6: A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.
7: On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.
8: At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,
9: and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.
10: For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.
11: Others who had assembled in the caves near by, to observe the seventh day secretly, were betrayed to Philip and were all burned together, because their piety kept them from defending themselves, in view of their regard for that most holy day.
12: Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.
13: In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.
14: For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,
15: in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height.
16: Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.
17: Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story.
18: Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.
19: But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,
20: as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.
21: Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,
22: so that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.
23: But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.
24: "Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life," he said, "lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,
25: and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.
26: For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.
27: Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age
28: and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws." When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.
29: And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.
30: When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: "It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him."
31: So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.
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